A rubric is a learning and assessment tool that articulates the expectations for assignments and performance tasks by listing criteria, and for each criteria, describing levels of quality from excellent to poor (Andrade, 2000; Arter & Chappuis, 2007; Stiggins, 2001). The clarity of rubrics is the most important characteristic for its comprehension and application.
In Assessing the Online Learner (Palloff & Pratt, 2012), , the authors present effective assessment as not only an element of good course design, but a key component in student engagement.
Understanding the connection between formative and summative assessments, and the how formative assessments should help the learner do well on the summative assessment, is vital for an instructional designer.
Addressing generational differences in course design is an important, yet challenging task for instructional designers. In theory, design for younger learners is less complex than design for mixed-age adult learners. Much has been written comparing Baby Boomers to Millennials; however, today’s secondary schools are not filled with millennials. These students are from Generation Z (also known as post-millennials, iGeneration, Homeland generation).